Chapter 3. Neuropsychological and Instrumental Diagnosis of Dementia: A Review

  1. Mario Maj2 and
  2. Norman Sartorius3
  1. Ove Almkvist

Published Online: 11 FEB 2002

DOI: 10.1002/0470842350.ch3



How to Cite

Almkvist, O. (2000) Neuropsychological and Instrumental Diagnosis of Dementia: A Review, in Dementia (eds M. Maj and N. Sartorius), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/0470842350.ch3

Editor Information

  1. 2

    University of Naples, Italy

  2. 3

    University of Geneva, Switzerland

Author Information

  1. Division of Geriatric Medicine B84, Huddinge Hospital, 14186 Huddinge, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 11 FEB 2002
  2. Published Print: 13 JUN 2000

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471606987

Online ISBN: 9780470842355



  • dementia;
  • geriatric psychiatry;
  • diagnosis;
  • neuropsychology;
  • Alzheimer's disease;
  • vascular dementia;
  • frontotemporal dementia


This review summarizes the state of the art concerning the diagnosis of dementia syndromes using neuropsychological and instrumental methods. The paper is focused on the three most common dementia syndromes, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The typical neuropsychological and instrumental findings in these syndromes are described, but first the principles of a neuropsychological and instrumental assessment are introduced. There is no general pattern of neuropsychological or instrumental findings that is valid for all dementia syndromes. On the contrary, the characteristics of dementia appear to be disease-related and specific for the disease course, i.e. stage-related. The pattern of specific disease- and stage-related characteristics makes sense if the time course and the brain distribution of neuropathology is considered and related to behaviour.