2. Prognosis of Bipolar Disorder

  1. Mario Maj2,
  2. Hagop S. Akiskal3,
  3. Juan José López-Ibor4 and
  4. Norman Sartorius5
  1. Professor Andreas Marneros and
  2. Dr. Peter Brieger

Published Online: 25 APR 2002

DOI: 10.1002/047084650X.ch2

Bipolar Disorder, Volume 5

Bipolar Disorder, Volume 5

How to Cite

Marneros, A. and Brieger, P. (2002) Prognosis of Bipolar Disorder, in Bipolar Disorder, Volume 5 (eds M. Maj, H. S. Akiskal, J. J. López-Ibor and N. Sartorius), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/047084650X.ch2

Editor Information

  1. 2

    University of Naples, Italy

  2. 3

    University of California, San Diego, USA

  3. 4

    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

  4. 5

    University of Geneva, Switzerland

Author Information

  1. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Martin-Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, 06097 Halle, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 25 APR 2002
  2. Published Print: 12 APR 2002

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471560371

Online ISBN: 9780470846506



  • bipolar disorder;
  • prognosis;
  • outcome assessment;
  • suicide;
  • disability evaluation;
  • comorbidity;
  • age of onset


Bipolar disorders are long-lasting and usually lifelong diseases. This review gives a comprehensive overview concerning its outcome and prognosis. Such aspects as onset, cycle length, course predictors, occurrence of persisting alterations, disability, mortality and comorbidity are being discussed. A special emphasis is given to atypical aspects of bipolar illness such as rapid cycling, mixed episodes, seasonality and bipolar schizo-affective disorder. To a great extent, the course of bipolar affective disorders seems to be biologically determined. The knowledge concerning such determining factors is limited, so that until now prediction of future course and outcome for a single subject is difficult.