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104 Satellite-Based Analysis of Ecological Controls for Land-Surface Evaporation Resistance

Part 9. Ecological and Hydrological Interactions

  1. Steven W Running,
  2. John S Kimball

Published Online: 15 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470848944.hsa110

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

How to Cite

Running, S. W. and Kimball, J. S. 2006. Satellite-Based Analysis of Ecological Controls for Land-Surface Evaporation Resistance. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 9:104.

Author Information

  1. NTSG University of Montana, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, Missoula, MT, US

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2006


Lack of available water constrains ecological processes for two-thirds of the earth's biosphere. These water limitations are manifested as either physical water deficiency or as a chemical unavailability of water as a result of being frozen. This article summarizes global principles of water limitations on the biosphere, and physiological limitations on plants. It presents hydrometeorological principles of evapotranspiration and organizing logic of the soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer models commonly used to compute evapotranspiration. We then introduce remote sensing from both optical/thermal and active/passive microwave sensors for calculating landscape scale evapotranspiration. Finally, we offer a multisensor-based integrated surface resistance to define landscape water availability under all conditions.


  • evapotranspiration;
  • surface resistance;
  • drought;
  • freeze–thaw;
  • remote sensing;
  • vegetation;
  • MODIS;