Standard Article

117 Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Runoff Processes: Urban and Suburban Development

Part 10. Rainfall-Runoff Processes

  1. Theodore A Endreny

Published Online: 15 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470848944.hsa122

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

How to Cite

Endreny, T. A. 2006. Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Runoff Processes: Urban and Suburban Development. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 10:117.

Author Information

  1. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Program in Hydrological Systems Science & Engineering, Syracuse, NY, US

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2006

Abstract

Urban and suburban development alters watershed imperviousness and connectivity, resulting in alterations to the hydrologic and hydraulic runoff response. Stormwater conveyance devices have been incorporated into most development to address the goal of floodwater removal for protection of life and property. Urban and suburban development laws generally consider the stormwater drainage system as part of the basic infrastructure and leave right of way and space to locate the component parts. Drainage systems are designed to protect life, enable vehicular access, extend pavement life cycle, control the volume and velocity of stormwater runoff along curbs and gutters, and convey stormwater runoff to natural or human constructed drainage ways and receiving waters. Engineering equations have been developed to design construction for optimal runoff behavior, such as timing, volume, and rate, into, through, and from conveyance devices. Design equations are also utilized for assessing the performance of constructed environments, to ascertain whether stormwater devices need rehabilitation or expansion. New frontiers in stormwater include model spatially distributed development that incorporates high-density elevation maps, radar rainfall, and details of remotely sensed infrastructure as well as ecological restoration simulation, including groundwater and river remediation for wildlife and recreation.

Keywords:

  • heat island;
  • impervious area;
  • gutter flow;
  • drainage inlet;
  • depression storage;
  • stormsewer system;
  • infiltration and inflow;
  • time of concentration;
  • overland flow;
  • hydraulic and hydrologic routing;
  • stormwater management;
  • receiving water