Standard Article

143 Mountain Streams

Part 12. Open-Channel Flow

  1. Aronne Armanini

Published Online: 15 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470848944.hsa150

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

How to Cite

Armanini, A. 2006. Mountain Streams. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 12:143.

Author Information

  1. University of Trento, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Trento, Italy

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2006


This paper illustrates the main features of the hydraulics of mountain streams. The effects of small submergence and riverbed steepness on sediment motion initiation and transport are discussed together with the effect of big roughness elements and pool-riffle and step-pool sequences on velocity distribution and flow resistance. Finally, the most used torrent defense techniques are described.


  • rivers;
  • torrent;
  • mountain rivers;
  • incipient motion;
  • sediment transport;
  • steps and pools;
  • check dams