Standard Article

152 Modeling Solute Transport Phenomena

Part 13. Groundwater

  1. Jacob Bear

Published Online: 15 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470848944.hsa156

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

How to Cite

Bear, J. 2006. Modeling Solute Transport Phenomena. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 13:152.

Author Information

  1. Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Haifa, Israel

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2006


The article presents the conceptual and well-posed mathematical models that describe the transport of solutes, or chemical species, in porous media, as encountered when considering the transport of dissolved salts and contaminants in aquifers. The various modes of transport: advection dispersion and diffusion are discussed and incorporated in the models. Solute sources are also incorporated in the models, including adsorption and an introduction to reactive transport. We shall emphasize that the fluid's velocity, and in unsaturated flow, also the fluid's saturation is required as input information to any solute transport problem. However, the model of flow problem that provides this information is discussed in Hydrodynamics of Groundwater. Unsaturated flow models are discussed in Unsaturated Zone Flow Processes. The case of solute transport with variable density is not included, as it is presented in Sea Water Intrusion Into Coastal Aquifers. More about chemical and biological reactions is presented in Groundwater Pollution and Remediation.


  • ground water;
  • solute transport;
  • contaminant transport;
  • dispersion;
  • diffusion;
  • adsorption;
  • modeling solute transport