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155 Numerical Models of Groundwater Flow and Transport

Part 13. Groundwater

  1. Ekkehard Holzbecher1,
  2. Shaul Sorek2

Published Online: 15 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470848944.hsa157

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

How to Cite

Holzbecher, E. and Sorek, S. 2006. Numerical Models of Groundwater Flow and Transport. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 13:155.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Humboldt Universität, Inst. of Freshwater Ecology (IGB), Berlin, Germany

  2. 2

    Ben Gurion University of the Negev, J. Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Sede Boker, Israel

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2006


The article gives an introduction to numerical modeling of flow and transport problems and to software tools that are currently in use for modeling such phenomena. Details are explained on numerical approximations leading to different numerical models. Extensions for reactive transport are mentioned. Basic guidelines and criteria are given that should be taken into account by the modeler in order to improve the accuracy of results. Inverse modeling is presented as an advanced feature. Some examples of pre- and postprocessing, as implemented in several codes, are given, in addition to fundamental properties of solution methods. Finally, most common codes are listed with basic features and web-sites.


  • flow;
  • solute and heat transport;
  • reactive transport;
  • finite differences;
  • finite volumes;
  • finite elements;
  • software;
  • pre- and postprocessing;
  • numerical solutions;
  • modeling tasks