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158 Anthropogenic Land Subsidence

Part 13. Groundwater

  1. Giuseppe Gambolati,
  2. Pietro Teatini,
  3. Massimiliano Ferronato

Published Online: 15 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470848944.hsa164b

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

How to Cite

Gambolati, G., Teatini, P. and Ferronato, M. 2006. Anthropogenic Land Subsidence. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 13:158.

Author Information

  1. University of Padova, Padova, Italy

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2006


Fluid removal from subsurface reservoirs, in the form of gas, oil, groundwater, geothermal water, and brine, produces a compaction of the depleted formations which migrates totally or partially to the ground surface thus inducing anthropogenic land subsidence. The paper presents: (i) a list of the major subsiding areas worldwide, (ii) a review of the mechanism which causes a measurable settlement above aquifer systems and gas/oil fields, (iii) a description of the currently available techniques to measure land subsidence and in situ rock compaction, (iv) a brief description of some mathematical models to predict the magnitude of subsidence, and (v) a description of a few remedial options that are available to control the event and mitigate the related environmental impact.


  • fluid withdrawal/injection;
  • land subsidence;
  • mathematical modelling;
  • monitoring technique