201 Land-Atmosphere Models for Water and Energy Cycle Studies
Part 17. Climate Change
Published Online: 15 APR 2006
Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences
How to Cite
Nijssen, B. and Bastidas, L. A. 2006. Land-Atmosphere Models for Water and Energy Cycle Studies. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 17:201.
- Published Online: 15 APR 2006
Land surface models simulate the temporal evolution of the energy and water balance at and near the land surface. These models can be used coupled to an atmospheric model, in which case feedbacks between the land surface and atmosphere are explicitly represented, or they can be used in a stand-alone, uncoupled mode, in which case observed or simulated atmospheric conditions act as time-varying boundary conditions. This article reviews the basic layout of land surface models, their history, and their uses, specifically in uncoupled simulations. In this context, the challenges of model performance evaluation and the role of model intercomparison projects are discussed. The article ends with a look toward the future and the next series of developments that land surface models are likely to undergo.
- energy balance;
- land surface – atmosphere interactions;
- land surface models;
- macroscale hydrology;
- model evaluation;
- water balance