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Groundwater Monitoring Strategies

Part 13. Groundwater

  1. Frans C van Geer1,
  2. Marc FP Bierkens2,
  3. Hans Peter Broers1

Published Online: 15 SEP 2008

DOI: 10.1002/0470848944.hsa316

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

How to Cite

van Geer, F. C., Bierkens, M. F. and Broers, H. P. 2008. Groundwater Monitoring Strategies. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 13.

Author Information

  1. 1

    TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Unit Soil and Groundwater Systems, Utrecht, The Netherlands

  2. 2

    Utrecht University, Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2008


Monitoring of groundwater pressure heads and groundwater quality is an integral part of water management. This article focuses on strategies of spatial and temporal distribution of data collection. Other aspects of monitoring such as well construction, measurement equipment, and database management are not discussed. In order to design, optimize, and evaluate monitoring systems, many approaches are in use. Although it is impossible to complete, we attempt to provide an overview of approaches to the design of groundwater monitoring strategies. Rather than giving extensive mathematical descriptions, we discuss design approaches from a practical point of view: each design approach is introduced through a case study where attention is paid to the link between monitoring objective and monitoring network design.


  • groundwater head monitoring;
  • groundwater quality monitoring;
  • monitoring design;
  • monitoring strategy;
  • cost-benefit analysis