Standard Article


  1. Bill C. Giessen1,
  2. Rafael Hidalgo2

Published Online: 15 MAR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470862106.ia006

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Giessen, B. C. and Hidalgo, R. 2006. Alloys. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA

  2. 2

    Springfield Technical Community College, Springfield, MA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2006


This article treats the current state of fundamental understanding, development, and applications of alloys, with emphasis on alloy chemistry rather than physical metallurgy. First, alloy phases and phase diagrams are treated from a computational viewpoint. Next, technical alloys, including steels, aluminum alloys, superalloys, and titanium alloys, are reviewed; structural intermetallics are treated as a paradigm for theoretical predictive methods. A review of important specialty alloys follows, including hard and soft magnetic alloys, superconductors, shape memory, and magnetostrictive alloys, hydrogen storage alloys, solders, and alloy coatings. A brief survey of current advanced alloy preparation and characterization methods concludes the article.


  • aluminum alloys;
  • brass alloys;
  • CALPHAD methods of alloy phase diagram prediction;
  • crystal structures of alloy phases;
  • hydrogen absorption in alloys;
  • intermetallic compounds;
  • magnetic alloys;
  • PHACOMP method of alloy phase prediction;
  • shape memory alloys (SMAs) steels, types of superalloys for gas turbines;
  • superconductor alloys