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Carbides: Transition Metal Solid-State Chemistry

  1. Walter Lengauer,
  2. Alexander Eder

Published Online: 15 MAR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470862106.ia034

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Lengauer, W. and Eder, A. 2006. Carbides: Transition Metal Solid-State Chemistry . Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2006


Basic properties and use of transition metal carbides and carbonitrides are presented in this article. Starting from crystal chemistry, bonding, and preparation, the article also briefly discusses analytical chemistry of chemical and physical carbon analysis as well as thermodynamics. Updated versions of phase diagrams of group 4, 5, and 6 transition metals with carbon as well as phase diagrams of Fe[BOND]C and Mn[BOND]C are presented together with those of the most important transition metal carbonitride systems Ti[BOND]C[BOND]N and Zr[BOND]C[BOND]N. A large part is devoted to the solid-state properties because they make carbides and carbonitrides interesting materials for application. The presentation of these properties includes hardness, thermal properties, conductivities, carbon diffusivity, and elastic properties. Some ternary and quaternary carbonitrides are also discussed. Several of these properties are given as a function of temperature and composition. Examples for application of carbides in modern hardmetal types such as recent development in fine-grained hardmetals and functional gradient hardmetals are included. The topic is closely connected to the article Nitrides: Transition Metal Solid State Chemistry.


  • structure;
  • solid-state properties;
  • analysis;
  • phase diagrams;
  • hardmetal