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Scandium, Yttrium & The Lanthanides: Organometallic Chemistry

  1. Herbert Schumann1,
  2. Igor L. Fedushkin2

Published Online: 15 MAR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470862106.ia212

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Schumann, H. and Fedushkin, I. L. 2006. Scandium, Yttrium & The Lanthanides: Organometallic Chemistry . Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

  2. 2

    G. A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2006


The group 3 metals scandium and yttrium and the 4f elements lanthanum to lutetium build up a big variety of organometallic compounds, in general with the metal in the oxidation state +3. Most of them are sandwich complexes Cp3Ln, Cp2LnX, and CpLnX2 containing unsubstituted or substituted cyclopentadienyl ligands. In addition, cyclopentadienyl-free organo rare earth compounds, like alkyl or aryl derivatives, alkenyl, allyl, alkynyl, hydrido, and carbene complexes, and organolanthanide compounds with indenyl, fluorenyl, cyclooctatetraenyl, or with heterocyclic ligands are described. Samarium, europium, and ytterbium form reasonable stable organic compounds in the oxidation state +2, whereas only a few rare earth organometallics with the metal in the oxidation state 0, +1, and +4 are known. All organo rare earth complexes are extremely sensitive to oxygen and water. The development of various synthetic methods as well as intensive single-crystal X-ray structure investigations made these highly reactive organometallic compounds available for use as organic synthons, efficient catalysts for polymerization, hydrogenation, hydroamination, and hydrosilylation as well as precursors for Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) and other material science applications.


  • cerium;
  • dysprosium;
  • erbium;
  • europium;
  • gadolinium;
  • holmium;
  • lanthanocene complexes;
  • lanthanum;
  • lutetium;
  • neodymium;
  • organolanthanide compounds;
  • praseodymium;
  • samarium;
  • scandium;
  • terbium;
  • thulium;
  • ytterbium;
  • yttrium