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Titanium: Inorganic & Coordination Chemistry

  1. Ann M. Valentine

Published Online: 15 MAR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470862106.ia246

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Valentine, A. M. 2006. Titanium: Inorganic & Coordination Chemistry . Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2006


This article describes the chemistry of titanium, with special focus on its inorganic coordination chemistry. This field has a rich history and has flourished in the years since the first industrial processes for isolation of titanium were introduced. Covered are the discovery of the metal, some of the physical properties of titanium and its complexes, and the unique coordination chemistry of titanium in its various oxidation states. The metal is commonly found in the +4 oxidation state, in which it behaves as a hard Lewis acid. Titanium complexes with formal oxidation states +3, and, much less commonly, +2, 0, and −1 are also known. The oxides, sulfides, halides, and complex halides are discussed. Complexes with carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and arsenic donor ligands are described. Structures and spectroscopic data are given for selected compounds. Interest in the coordination chemistry of titanium has been driven by important applications in materials chemistry and in catalysis.


  • titanium;
  • coordination chemistry;
  • review;
  • titanium dioxide;
  • titanate;
  • ilmenite;
  • rutile;
  • halide;
  • Ziegler–Natta;
  • budotitane