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Endohedral Fullerenes

  1. Shangfeng Yang1,2,
  2. Lothar Dunsch1

Published Online: 15 MAR 2009

DOI: 10.1002/0470862106.ia415

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Yang, S. and Dunsch, L. 2009. Endohedral Fullerenes. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Dresden, Germany

  2. 2

    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2009


The recent state in endohedral fullerenes is reviewed in terms of both sides of the fullerene: the new carbon cages including non-IPR (IPR, isolated pentagon rule) structures as well as new species encaged in the inner fullerene void. A general principle is valid nowadays and used in endohedral fullerene research: the stabilizing ability of the encaged structure for the fullerene cage architecture and that of the fullerene cage for the encaged species. Thus, the cage size ranges from C66, the first non-IPR fullerene cage, to C100 while the encaged species are extended up to five atomic clusters as for Sc3C2. The world of endohedral fullerenes was significantly enlarged within the past seven years by the cluster fullerenes containing structures like the M3N nitrides. This review is focused on the new development of this amazing world of carbon nanostructures since 1999, including new structures, properties, and potential applications of endohedral fullerenes as well as prospects.


  • fullerenes;
  • endohedral fullerenes;
  • isomers;
  • nitride cluster;
  • electronic structure;
  • UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy;
  • FTIR spectroscopy;
  • electrochemistry;
  • chemical property