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Iodine: Radionuclides

  1. Qinhong Hu1,
  2. Jean E. Moran2

Published Online: 15 JUN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/0470862106.ia724

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Hu, Q. and Moran, J. E. 2010. Iodine: Radionuclides. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA

  2. 2

    California State University, Hayward, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2010


This article provides a review of iodine with regard to the basic chemistry, occurrence, speciation, separation, analysis, fate, and transport. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in the environment is complex because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states (ranging from −1 to +7), and inorganic and organic species may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. Organically bound iodine can be a significant fraction of total iodine in the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities constitute the major source (>90%) of 129I released to the environment. It has been recognized that 129I is a very important dose contributor in risk assessment because of its tendency to concentrate in the human thyroid gland, long half-life, and presumably high mobility. Speciation, input concentration, and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.


  • stable iodine;
  • iodine-129;
  • speciation;
  • oxidation state;
  • organic iodine;
  • biogeochemical cycling