Fuel Cells: Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxides
Published Online: 18 JAN 2011
Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry
How to Cite
Atkinson, A., Kilner, J., Skinner, S., Brandon, N. P. and Brett, D. J. L. 2011. Fuel Cells: Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxides. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 18 JAN 2011
Fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices that convert chemical energy in fuels directly into electrical energy, without the process of combustion. As a result, they are not constrained by the same thermodynamic limitations as those of heat engines and therefore have the potential to achieve higher efficiencies. High-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFCs) operate up to 1000 °C. These fuel cells achieve very high system efficiencies when integrated with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, operation at such high temperatures means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic, in addition to expensive high-temperature metal alloys. For smaller scale applications, there is a trend to move to lower operating temperatures, into the so-called intermediate-temperature (IT) range of 500–750 °C. In doing so, a wider range of construction materials can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, improved performance durability. In this article, we introduce the IT-SOFC and explain their main operational advantages. We also focus on the combination of inorganic materials and processing routes that go to make reduced temperature SOFC operation possible.
- intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell;
- combined heat and power;