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Supercapacitors: Electrode Materials Aspects

  1. Li Li Zhang,
  2. Zhibin Lei,
  3. Jintao Zhang,
  4. Xiaoning Tian,
  5. Xiu Song Zhao

Published Online: 18 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/0470862106.ia816

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry

How to Cite

Zhang, L. L., Lei, Z., Zhang, J., Tian, X. and Zhao, X. S. 2011. Supercapacitors: Electrode Materials Aspects. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. National University of Singapore, Singapore

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 JAN 2011

Abstract

Global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels have driven the world to adopt sustainable and renewable energies. Electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems are considered as such energy sources. As a bridge between high-power-output conventional capacitors and high-energy-density batteries, supercapacitors (also known as ultracapacitors or electrical double layer capacitors) are an ideal electrochemical energy-storage system, suitable for rapid storage and release of energy. In comparison with that of batteries, the energy density of supercapacitors is much lower. Therefore, improving the energy density without sacrificing the high power density of supercapacitors has been a key research direction in developing high-performance supercapacitor devices. The properties of the active electrode materials, including surface area, pore size, pore connectivity, electric conductivity, and surface chemistry, play a crucial role in determining the ultimate performance of the supercapacitor. This article presents an overview of literature data on supercapacitor electrode materials. With a brief description of the structure and energy-storage mechanism of supercapacitors, recent advancements in electrode materials including carbon-based materials (e.g., activated carbon, templated carbon, carbon nanotubes, graphene), transition-metal oxides, and conducting polymers are summarized and discussed.

Keywords:

  • supercapacitors;
  • mechanism of energy storage;
  • electrode materials;
  • carbon-based materials;
  • transition-metal oxides;
  • conducting polymer materials