UNIT 1.6 Sea Urchin Embryos and Larvae as Biosensors for Neurotoxicants

  1. Gennady A. Buznikov1,
  2. Theodore A. Slotkin2,
  3. Jean M. Lauder3

Published Online: 1 AUG 2003

DOI: 10.1002/0471140856.tx0106s16

Current Protocols in Toxicology

Current Protocols in Toxicology

How to Cite

Buznikov, G. A., Slotkin, T. A. and Lauder, J. M. 2003. Sea Urchin Embryos and Larvae as Biosensors for Neurotoxicants. Current Protocols in Toxicology. 16:1.6:1.6.1–1.6.24.

Author Information

  1. 1

    N.K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow, Russia

  2. 2

    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

  3. 3

    University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 AUG 2003
  2. Published Print: MAY 2003


Sea urchin embryos and larvae provide an inexpensive high-throughput system for determining developmental actions of neuropharmacologic agents or environmental neurotoxins in both applied and basic biologic contexts. The use of this system for the testing of chlorpyrifos, 1-nicotine, lipophilic amides of choline, and ritanserin is described in detail.


  • sea urchin embryos and larvae;
  • chlorpyrifos;
  • 1-nicotine;
  • ritanserin