UNIT 1.8 Preclinical Models of Parkinson's Disease

  1. Krys S. Bankiewicz1,
  2. Rosario Sanchez-Pernaute2,
  3. Yoshitsugu Oiwa3,
  4. Malgorzata Kohutnicka4,
  5. Alex Cummins5,
  6. Jamie Eberling6

Published Online: 1 FEB 2004

DOI: 10.1002/0471140856.tx0108s18

Current Protocols in Toxicology

Current Protocols in Toxicology

How to Cite

Bankiewicz, K. S., Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Oiwa, Y., Kohutnicka, M., Cummins, A. and Eberling, J. 2004. Preclinical Models of Parkinson's Disease. Current Protocols in Toxicology. 18:1.8:1.8.1–1.8.31.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California

  2. 2

    McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

  3. 3

    Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

  4. 4

    Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland

  5. 5

    National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland

  6. 6

    University of California Davis, Davis, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 FEB 2004
  2. Published Print: NOV 2003


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which pigmented midbrain neurons progressively die producing a dopamine (DA) deficit in the striatum, which manifests as an akinetic movement disorder. Experimentally induced striatal DA depletion in animals is a valid model of parkinsonism. The capacity of certain substances to damage catecholaminergic neurons has been used extensively to produce DA deficiency in animals. This unit describes methods for inducing parkinsonism in nonhuman primates and rodents using the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Additionally, procedures for evaluating the animals are presented.