UNIT 13.5 In Vivo Assessment of Prenatal Developmental Toxicity in Rodents

  1. Michael G. Narotsky,
  2. Robert J. Kavlock

Published Online: 1 AUG 2003

DOI: 10.1002/0471140856.tx1305s16

Current Protocols in Toxicology

Current Protocols in Toxicology

How to Cite

Narotsky, M. G. and Kavlock, R. J. 2003. In Vivo Assessment of Prenatal Developmental Toxicity in Rodents. Current Protocols in Toxicology. 16:13.5:13.5.1–13.5.25.

Author Information

  1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 AUG 2003
  2. Published Print: MAY 2003


This unit presents two basic protocols for testing prenatal developmental toxicity in rodents. The standard protocol for assessing prenatal developmental toxicity, often referred to as a Segment II study, describes the methods used for performing cesarean sections and examining cesarean-delivered fetuses for external, skeletal, and visceral alterations. The protocol for the Chernoff/Kavlock assay, a developmental toxicity screen, describes methods for examining parturition, and postnatal growth and viability of prenatally exposed litters.


  • prenatal developmental toxicity;
  • teratology;
  • pregnancy;
  • Segment II;
  • Chernoff/Kavlock assay