UNIT 18.11 Analysis of Immunotoxicity by Enumeration of Antibody-Producing B Cells

  1. Stacey E. Anderson,
  2. Albert E. Munson,
  3. Barbara J. Meade

Published Online: 1 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0471140856.tx1811s29

Current Protocols in Toxicology

Current Protocols in Toxicology

How to Cite

Anderson, S. E., Munson, A. E. and Meade, B. J. 2006. Analysis of Immunotoxicity by Enumeration of Antibody-Producing B Cells. Current Protocols in Toxicology. 29:18.11:18.11.1–18.11.19.

Author Information

  1. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 SEP 2006
  2. Published Print: AUG 2006


The plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay measures the humoral immune response mediated by the concerted actions of antigen-presenting cells, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes. The most common form of the plaque method is used for the detection of murine primary IgM antibodies directed against the T cell–dependent sheep red blood cell (sRBC) surface antigens. Research has shown that the PFC response to sRBC is not only an excellent monitor of the primary effector function of the B cell, but that it may be the most sensitive immune parameter currently available to identify chemical perturbation. Several modifications and variations of the PFC assay are described in detail in this unit.


  • Immunotoxicity;
  • humoral immunity;
  • antibody-forming cells