UNIT 8.9 Models of Nociception: Hot-Plate, Tail-Flick, and Formalin Tests in Rodents

  1. Anthony W. Bannon1,
  2. Annika B. Malmberg2

Published Online: 1 OCT 2007

DOI: 10.1002/0471142301.ns0809s41

Current Protocols in Neuroscience

Current Protocols in Neuroscience

How to Cite

Bannon, A. W. and Malmberg, A. B. 2007. Models of Nociception: Hot-Plate, Tail-Flick, and Formalin Tests in Rodents. Current Protocols in Neuroscience. 41:8.9:8.9.1–8.9.16.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Icagen Inc., Durham, North Carolina

  2. 2

    Amgen, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 OCT 2007
  2. Published Print: OCT 2007


Experimental models of pain include tests of response thesholds to high intensity stimuli (acute pain tests) and changes in spontaneous or evoked behavioral responses in animals with peripheral injury or inflammation (persistent pain models). Acute thermal pain is modeled by the hot-plate and tail-flick test, while persistent pain can be modeled by the formalin test. This unit presents protocols for all three of these tests, including preparation of animals (rats or mice), administration of a compound being tested for its analgesic properties and data collection. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 41:8.9.1-8.9.16. © 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


  • pain;
  • nociception;
  • tail flick;
  • formalin;
  • hot plate;
  • rat;
  • mouse;
  • animal model;
  • analgesia