UNIT 9.37 Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) Kindling Model of Epilepsy

  1. Ashish Dhir

Published Online: 1 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471142301.ns0937s58

Current Protocols in Neuroscience

Current Protocols in Neuroscience

How to Cite

Dhir, A. 2012. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) Kindling Model of Epilepsy. Current Protocols in Neuroscience. 58:9.37:9.37.1–9.37.12.

Author Information

  1. Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: JAN 2012


This unit describes a protocol to perform chemical kindling in mice. Kindling is a chronic animal model of epilepsy that has been extensively studied to understand the process of epileptogenesis and discover novel anti-epileptic compounds. Kindling is a phenomenon where a sub-convulsive stimulus (either chemical or electrical), if applied repetitively and intermittently, will ultimately lead to the generation of full-blown convulsions. Kindling can be induced either by (1) electrical stimulation of different brain regions (electrical kindling) or (2) using various chemical agents (chemical kindling). This unit discusses in detail the methodology to execute pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; a GABAA receptor antagonist)–induced chemical kindling in mice. PTZ is administered chronically at a sub-convulsive dose for a number of days. Seizure score is calculated after each PTZ injection. The effect of test/reference compounds can be tested by administering them either prior to the initiation of kindling (pre-kindling phase) or after animals are fully kindled (post-kindling phase). Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 58:9.37.1-9.37.12. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


  • epilepsy;
  • chemical kindling;
  • mice;
  • pentylenetetrazol