UNIT 4.30 Using Morpholinos to Control Gene Expression

  1. Jon D. Moulton

Published Online: 1 JAN 2007

DOI: 10.1002/0471142700.nc0430s27

Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry

Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry

How to Cite

Moulton, J. D. 2007. Using Morpholinos to Control Gene Expression. Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. 27:4.30:4.30.1–4.30.24.

Author Information

  1. Gene Tools, LLC, Philomath, Oregon

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2007
  2. Published Print: DEC 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (2 MAR 2017)


Morpholino oligonucleotides are stable, uncharged, water-soluble molecules used to block complementary sequences of RNA, preventing processing, read-through, or protein binding at those sites. Morpholinos are typically used to block translation of mRNA and to block splicing of pre-mRNA, though they can block other interactions between biological macromolecules and RNA. Morpholinos are effective, specific, and lack non-antisense effects. They work in any cell that transcribes and translates RNA, but must be delivered into the nuclear/cytosolic compartment to be effective. Morpholinos form stable base pairs with complementary nucleic acid sequences but apparently do not bind to proteins to a significant extent. They are not recognized by any proteins and do not undergo protein-mediated catalysis; nor do they mediate RNA cleavage by RNase H or the RISC complex. This work focuses on techniques and background for using Morpholinos.


  • Morpholino;
  • antisense;
  • oligo;
  • knockdown;
  • splicing