UNIT 21.1 Proper Alignment and Adjustment of the Light Microscope

  1. Edward D. Salmon,
  2. Julie C. Canman

Published Online: 1 MAY 2002

DOI: 10.1002/0471142735.im2101s48

Current Protocols in Immunology

Current Protocols in Immunology

How to Cite

Salmon, E. D. and Canman, J. C. 2002. Proper Alignment and Adjustment of the Light Microscope. Current Protocols in Immunology. 48:21.1:21.1.1–21.1.26.

Author Information

  1. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 MAY 2002
  2. Published Print: APR 2002


The light microscope is a basic tool for the cell biologist, who should have a thorough understanding of how it works, how it should be aligned for different applications (e.g., brightfield, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence epi-illumination), and how it should be maintained as required to obtain maximum image-forming capacity and resolution. The principles of microscopy and step-by-step alignment and adjustment procedures are described in this unit.