UNIT 22F.5 Differentiation and Characterization of Myeloid Cells

  1. Peter Gaines,
  2. Nancy Berliner

Published Online: 1 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471142735.im22f05s67

Current Protocols in Immunology

Current Protocols in Immunology

How to Cite

Gaines, P. and Berliner, N. 2005. Differentiation and Characterization of Myeloid Cells. Current Protocols in Immunology. 67:F:22F.5:22F.5.1–22F.5.14.

Author Information

  1. Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JUL 2005
  2. Published Print: JUN 2005

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (4 FEB 2014)


Recent molecular studies of myeloid differentiation have utilized several in vitro models of myelopoiesis. Hematopoietic progenitors expressing the CD34+ antigen can be induced in vitro in a process that recapitulates the normal myeloid development. Two human leukemic cell lines, NB-4 and HL-60, have been demonstrated to undergo retinoic acid–induced myeloid development, however, both cell lines exhibit defects in the upregulation of late-expressed neutrophil-specific genes. In contrast, two murine factor–dependent cell models of myelopoiesis express the full range of neutrophil maturation markers: 32Dcl3 cells, which undergo G-CSF-induced myeloid maturation, and EML/EPRO cells, which develop into mature neutrophils in response to cytokines and retinoic acid. In this unit, the induction of myeloid maturation in each of these model systems is described. Commonly used techniques to test for myeloid characteristics of developing cells are also described. Together, these assays provide a solid foundation for in vitro investigations of myeloid development.


  • stem cell progenitors;
  • promyelocytes;
  • myeloid induction;
  • neutrophil characteristics;
  • cell-surface markers