UNIT 2.1 Contrast Enhancement in Light Microscopy

  1. H. Ernst Keller

Published Online: 1 MAY 2001

DOI: 10.1002/0471142956.cy0201s00

Current Protocols in Cytometry

Current Protocols in Cytometry

How to Cite

Keller, H. E. 2001. Contrast Enhancement in Light Microscopy. Current Protocols in Cytometry. 00:2.1:2.1.1–2.1.11.

Author Information

  1. Carl Zeiss, Inc., Thornwood, New York

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 MAY 2001
  2. Published Print: APR 1997

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (1 JAN 2013)


The optical microscope is a fundamental component of an image cytometry system. Electronic imaging has both greatly enhanced the capabilities of light microscopes and placed ever-increasing demands on their optical performance. This unit covers the basic concepts of light microscopy, including Köhler illumination, resolution, contrast, and numerical aperture, and reviews the many types of instruments and techniques for contrast enhancement.