UNIT 2.1 Contrast Enhancement in Light Microscopy

  1. H. Ernst Keller1,
  2. Simon Watkins2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/0471142956.cy0201s63

Current Protocols in Cytometry

Current Protocols in Cytometry

How to Cite

Ernst Keller, H. and Watkins, S. 2013. Contrast Enhancement in Light Microscopy. Current Protocols in Cytometry. 63:2.1:2.1.1–2.1.9.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Carl Zeiss, Inc., Thornwood, New York

  2. 2

    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2013
  2. Published Print: JAN 2013


The optical microscope is a fundamental component of an image cytometry system. This unit covers the basic concepts of light microscopy, including Köhler illumination, resolution, contrast, and numerical aperture, and reviews the many types of instruments and techniques for contrast enhancement. Curr. Protoc. Cytom. 63:2.1.1-2.1.9. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


  • imaging and microscopy;
  • light microscopy;
  • instrumentation