UNIT 6.16 Flow Cytometric Assessment of HLA Alloantibodies

  1. Robert A. Bray1,
  2. Howard M. Gebel1,
  3. Thomas M. Ellis2

Published Online: 1 FEB 2004

DOI: 10.1002/0471142956.cy0616s27

Current Protocols in Cytometry

Current Protocols in Cytometry

How to Cite

Bray, R. A., Gebel, H. M. and Ellis, T. M. 2004. Flow Cytometric Assessment of HLA Alloantibodies. Current Protocols in Cytometry. 27:6.16:6.16.1–6.16.24.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

  2. 2

    The Blood Center of Southeastern Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 FEB 2004
  2. Published Print: JAN 2004


Antibodies against HLA molecules are formed in response to exposure to foreign HLA molecules, which can occur as a result of blood transfusion, pregnancy, or transplant. Blood components, particularly those containing cellular elements, are the most common cause of HLA antibodies. This unit describes technical aspects of the flow cytometric crossmatch (FCXM), flow cytometric microparticle assays, and cell-based flow cytometric screening assays. The collective goal for these assays is to clearly identify the presence of HLA antibody, determine the titer of antibody, and elucidate the specificities (i.e., HLA antigens) to which they will react. Knowledge of this information is critical for organ allocation and accurate assessment of the immunological risk for a patient at the time of transplantation. In addition, the identification of HLA antibodies in blood components may be useful in planning appropriate transfusion support strategies for selected patients.


  • alloantibody;
  • flow cytometry crossmatch;
  • HLA antibody;
  • transplantation