UNIT 12.3 Modern Confocal Microscopy

  1. Bartek Rajwa

Published Online: 1 FEB 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0471142956.cy1203s31

Current Protocols in Cytometry

Current Protocols in Cytometry

How to Cite

Rajwa, B. 2005. Modern Confocal Microscopy. Current Protocols in Cytometry. 31:12.3:12.3.1–12.3.12.

Author Information

  1. Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories, West Lafayette, Indiana

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 FEB 2005
  2. Published Print: JAN 2005


This unit re-examines confocal microscopy from a current perspective. It outlines many of the most modern applications of confocal microscopy and the issues surrounding them. The expanding applications of confocal microscopy demand both minor and major modifications of the technology to enhance imaging capabilities for a growing variety of samples. Techniques of interest such as FRET, FLIP, FRAP, and IFRAP are described. The unit includes a discussion on multispectral imaging, potentially the most exciting innovation in the field of biological imaging. The other area that is beginning to have considerable impact on biology, medicine, and pharmacology comprises high-content screening (HCS) and high-throughput screening (HTS). This unit also introduces programmable array microscopes (PAMs), which are based upon a technique in which spatial modulators are placed in the imaging plane of a microscope and used to generate patterns of illumination and/or detection.


  • confocal microscopy;
  • multispectral imaging;
  • programmable array microscope;
  • FRET;
  • FRAP