UNIT 12.9 Live-Animal Imaging of Renal Function by Multiphoton Microscopy

  1. Kenneth W. Dunn,
  2. Timothy A. Sutton,
  3. Ruben M. Sandoval

Published Online: 1 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/0471142956.cy1209s41

Current Protocols in Cytometry

Current Protocols in Cytometry

How to Cite

Dunn, K. W., Sutton, T. A. and Sandoval, R. M. 2007. Live-Animal Imaging of Renal Function by Multiphoton Microscopy. Current Protocols in Cytometry. 41:12.9:12.9.1–12.9.18.

Author Information

  1. Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JUL 2007
  2. Published Print: JUL 2007

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (1 OCT 2012)


Intravital microscopy, microscopy of living animals, is a powerful research technique that combines the resolution and sensitivity found in microscopic studies of cultured cells with the relevance and systemic influences of cells in the context of the intact animal. The power of intravital microscopy has recently been extended with the development of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy systems capable of collecting optical sections from deep within the kidney at subcellular resolution, supporting high-resolution characterizations of the structure and function of glomeruli, tubules, and vasculature in the living kidney. Fluorescent probes are administered to an anesthetized, surgically prepared animal, followed by image acquisition for up to 3 hr. Images are transferred via a high-speed network to specialized computer systems for digital image analysis. This general approach can be used with different combinations of fluorescent probes to evaluate processes such as glomerular permeability, proximal tubule endocytosis, microvascular flow, vascular permeability, mitochondrial function, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis.


  • Multiphoton microscopy;
  • intravital microscopy;
  • in vivo microscopy;
  • fluorescence microscopy