UNIT 12.12 From In Vitro to In Vivo: Imaging from the Single Cell to the Whole Organism

  1. Jung Julie Kang,
  2. Ildiko Toma,
  3. Arnold Sipos,
  4. Janos Peti-Peterdi

Published Online: 1 APR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/0471142956.cy1212s44

Current Protocols in Cytometry

Current Protocols in Cytometry

How to Cite

Julie Kang, J., Toma, I., Sipos, A. and Peti-Peterdi, J. 2008. From In Vitro to In Vivo: Imaging from the Single Cell to the Whole Organism. Current Protocols in Cytometry. 44:12.12:12.12.1–12.12.26.

Author Information

  1. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 APR 2008
  2. Published Print: APR 2008


This unit addresses the applications of fluorescence microscopy and quantitative imaging to study multiple physiological variables of living tissue. Protocols are presented for fluorescence-based investigations ranging from in vitro cell and tissue approaches to in vivo imaging of intact organs. These include the measurement of cytosolic parameters both in vitro and in vivo (such as calcium, pH, and nitric oxide), dynamic cellular processes (renin granule exocytosis), FRET-based real-time assays of enzymatic activity (renin), physiological processes (vascular contraction, membrane depolarization), and whole organ functional parameters (blood flow, glomerular filtration). Multi-photon microscopy is ideal for minimally invasive and undisruptive deep optical sectioning of the living tissue, which translates into ultra-sensitive real-time measurement of these parameters with high spatial and temporal resolution. With the combination of cell and tissue cultures, microperfusion techniques, and whole organ or animal models, fluorescence imaging provides unmatched versatility for biological and medical studies of the living organism. Curr. Protocol. Cytom. 44:12.12.1-12.12.26. © 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


  • in vivo imaging;
  • in vitro imaging;
  • multiphoton fluorescence microscopy;
  • real-time imaging;
  • intravital imaging;
  • laser-scanning microscopy