UNIT 12.24 Practical Methods for Molecular In Vivo Optical Imaging

  1. Hannah Chen,
  2. Stephen H. Thorne

Published Online: 1 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471142956.cy1224s59

Current Protocols in Cytometry

Current Protocols in Cytometry

How to Cite

Chen, H. and Thorne, S. H. 2012. Practical Methods for Molecular In Vivo Optical Imaging. Current Protocols in Cytometry. 59:12.24:12.24.1–12.24.11.

Author Information

  1. Departments of Surgery and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: JAN 2012


Traditional approaches for translating observations of molecular events into the context of a living organism have suffered from the requirements for either sacrificing animals at multiple time points prior to labor-intensive analyses of multiple tissues, or have relied on subjective observations or measurements of the animals over time. Recently, a plethora of dedicated animal-imaging modalities and the release of modified clinical imaging devices dedicated for animal imaging have allowed for the design of quantitative real-time experiments incorporating fewer animals and providing whole-animal analyses. Of these modalities, optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence) has emerged as a powerful research tool, allowing investigators with limited whole-animal imaging expertise to rapidly and inexpensively translate models produced in cellular assays into the context of a living animal. Here we will outline the steps necessary for translation of models established in culture systems into rodents. Curr. Protoc. Cytom. 59:12.24.1-12.24.11. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


  • bioluminescence;
  • fluorescence;
  • whole animal;
  • molecular imaging;
  • non-invasive reporter