UNIT 12.27 Near-Infrared Molecular Probes for In Vivo Imaging

  1. Xuan Zhang,
  2. Sharon Bloch,
  3. Walter Akers,
  4. Samuel Achilefu

Published Online: 1 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471142956.cy1227s60

Current Protocols in Cytometry

Current Protocols in Cytometry

How to Cite

Zhang, X., Bloch, S., Akers, W. and Achilefu, S. 2012. Near-Infrared Molecular Probes for In Vivo Imaging. Current Protocols in Cytometry. 60:12.27:12.27.1–12.27.20.

Author Information

  1. Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 APR 2012
  2. Published Print: APR 2012


Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo imaging because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications. Curr. Protoc. Cytom. 60:12.27.1-12.27.20. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


  • in vivo imaging;
  • in vitro imaging;
  • near-infrared fluorescent probe;
  • confocal microscopy;
  • fluorescence lifetime imaging