UNIT 19.15 Chick Embryo Culture and Electroporation

  1. Yukinori Endo

Published Online: 1 SEP 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471143030.cb1915s56

Current Protocols in Cell Biology

Current Protocols in Cell Biology

How to Cite

Endo, Y. 2012. Chick Embryo Culture and Electroporation. Current Protocols in Cell Biology. 56:19.15:19.15.1–19.15.10.

Author Information

  1. Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 SEP 2012
  2. Published Print: SEP 2012


Important events in embryonic development such as gastrulation, neurulation, and cranial neural crest development occur in ectodermal tissues during vertebrate embryonic development. Although the chicken embryo is a well-established model system in developmental biology, problems of accessibility of the ectoderm for experimental manipulation and an inability to generate gene knockouts previously impeded studies of gene regulation and key processes during chicken gastrulation and neurulation. The technique of in ovo electroporation permits genetic manipulation and provides a powerful animal model. However, the problem of accessibility to the ectoderm in ovo requires an ex ovo whole-embryo culture approach combined with electroporation. This unit provides convenient and reproducible whole-embryo ex ovo culture and electroporation protocols. These chicken embryo culture protocols can be used not only for gene regulatory experiments, but also for time-lapse imaging of the dynamics of early vertebrate development. Curr. Protoc. Cell Biol. 56:19.15.1-19.15.10. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


  • chicken embryo;
  • ex ovo culture;
  • electroporation;
  • morpholino;
  • neural crest cells