Standard Article


  1. Tim Eggeman

Published Online: 16 APR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/0471238961.0113131503262116.a01.pub3

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology

How to Cite

Eggeman, T. 2010. Ammonia. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 1–33.

Author Information

  1. Neoterics International

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 16 APR 2010

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Ammonia is a colorless gas, lighter than air and has a unique penetrating odor. it occur naturally throughout the universe. This article lists the important properties of ammonia and discusses its manufacture. Ammonia is produced by the steam reforming of methane. This process is discussed in detail along with other routes. Current technology from Udhe and KBR are touched on. Ammonia is a world-class commodity. U.S. and world production data are given. Ammonia produced by steam reforming is relatively clean, but ammonia produced from heavy feedstocks can cause environmental problems. Ammonia is a strong local irritant. The largest use for ammonia is in the production of fertilizer. It is also used to produce chemicals such as caprolactam, acrylontirile, urea, and hydrogen cyanide.


  • ammonia;
  • steam reforming;
  • fertilizers;
  • syngas;
  • pipelines