Standard Article

Refractories, Industrial

  1. Michel Rigaud

Published Online: 13 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471238961.refrriga.a01

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology

How to Cite

Rigaud, M. 2012. Refractories, Industrial. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 1–40.

Author Information

  1. University of Montreal, Federation International for Refractories Research and Education

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 13 JUL 2012


Some definitions and criteria for classification of refractories as engineering materials are given. How they are made, and information is given on how production of refractories results from the culmination of many different technologies, and that they are tailored to meet very specific needs and construction. The raw materials to make refractories: oxides, carbons, other non-oxides, other chemicals, including cements and fibers (organic, metallic, ceramic) are detailed, distinguishing for each category between the ores, the minerals and the raw material Information on the characteristics of refractories as engineered materials include: properties versus the characteristics, the scales (magnification) and the hierarchy of structures; testing methods and the physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of the refractories (and raw materials); properties of pure oxides and other synthetic products, relevant for the refractories products. Refractory lining design, selection of products, construction, installation, and maintenance are major points covered. The materials and the construction of lining (including anchoring), state of stresses in linings, the gradient of temperature in use, and all other process variables, 1-2-3 walls, insulating, heat transfer calculations, listing of properties for selected materials are given.

Detailing the use of refractories in various industrial applications fall outside the scope of this article, but several sources of references have been provided.


  • Classification;
  • Manufacturing;
  • Properties;
  • Characteristics;
  • Selection;
  • Construction;
  • Installation;
  • Maintenance;
  • Refractories