UNIT 9.6 Using Chado to Store Genome Annotation Data

  1. Pinglei Zhou,
  2. David Emmert,
  3. Peili Zhang

Published Online: 1 JAN 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0471250953.bi0906s12

Current Protocols in Bioinformatics

Current Protocols in Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Zhou, P., Emmert, D. and Zhang, P. 2006. Using Chado to Store Genome Annotation Data. Current Protocols in Bioinformatics. 12:9.6:9.6.1–9.6.28.

Author Information

  1. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2006
  2. Published Print: DEC 2005


Chado is a relational database schema that can be used to manage a wide variety of biological information, including genome annotation, genetic, phenotypic, and expression data. Its flexibility comes from its use of “ontologies,” which are controlled vocabularies that describe data types and the relationships among them. By changing its ontologies, Chado can be customized to suit many different needs. Another aspect that gives Chado its flexibility is its use of a modular design, which means that users can choose to use only those features of Chado that are suitable for their needs. XORT is the main software tool used to move data in and out of Chado databases. XORT uses an XML-based file format for data import and export; this format is called ChadoXML, The protocols described in this chapter show how to use XORT and related software to import genome annotation data into Chado databases, and how to export data stored in Chado databases into different file formats for report and data mining purposes.


  • Chado;
  • genome;
  • annotation;
  • database;
  • XORT;
  • GAME;
  • GMOD