Standard Article

Spa and Hot Tub Microbiology

  1. Mic H. Stewart

Published Online: 15 JAN 2003

DOI: 10.1002/0471263397.env187

Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology

Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology

How to Cite

Stewart, M. H. 2003. Spa and Hot Tub Microbiology. Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology. .

Author Information

  1. Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2003


  • Operational Parameters of Spas and Hot Tubs

  • Microbial Loading in Hot Tub and Spa Water

  • Waterborne Illness Associated with Spas and Hot Tubs

  • Microbial Persistence in Aquatic Environments

  • Health Guidelines for Spas and Hot Tubs


  • hot tub microbiology;
  • spa microbiology