Standard Article

Sea Ice Microorganisms

  1. Rolf Gradinger

Published Online: 15 JAN 2003

DOI: 10.1002/0471263397.env310

Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology

Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology

How to Cite

Gradinger, R. 2003. Sea Ice Microorganisms. Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology. .

Author Information

  1. University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2003


  • Different Types of Ice

  • Primary Producers Within the Ice

  • Nutrient Concentrations

  • Bacteria in Sea Ice

  • Adaption to the Environment

  • Grazing on the Sea Ice Algal Biomass


  • extreme environments;
  • ice environment;
  • marine environment;
  • sea ice microbial communities