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LC/MS, Pesticide Residue Analysis

  1. Alexander J. Krynitsky1,
  2. Dayan B. Goodenowe2,
  3. James Stry3,
  4. Steven J. Stout4

Published Online: 15 APR 2003

DOI: 10.1002/047126363X.agr068

Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals

Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals

How to Cite

Krynitsky, A. J., Goodenowe, D. B., Stry, J. and Stout, S. J. 2003. LC/MS, Pesticide Residue Analysis. Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fort Meade, Maryland

  2. 2

    Yol Bolsum Inc., Rycroft, Alberta, Canada

  3. 3

    Dupont Crop Protection, Newark, Delaware

  4. 4

    BASF Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2003


The very low concentration limits prescribed by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pesticides in food, water, and soils have prompted analysts to develop analytical techniques that can determine these compounds at trace levels. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) offers specificity and confirmation capabilities. Because of the above, HPLC/MS is becoming the method of choice for determining low levels (<10 ppb) of pesticides that would normally be difficult to analyze by conventional HPLC or gas chromatography (GC) methods. In this chapter, the two commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization (API) mass spectrometry techniques will be discussed: electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Also, this chapter will discuss the advantageous and disadvantageous with the two API techniques, as well as some practical applications to the following classes of pesticides: sulfonylurea herbicides, imidazolinone herbicides, phenoxyacid herbicides, and carbamate insecticides. Finally, matrix effects will be discussed, along with ways how to optimize the API conditions.


  • HPLC/MS;
  • atmospheric pressure ionization (API);
  • atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI);
  • electrospray ionization (ESI);
  • EPA;
  • FDA;
  • sulfonylurea herbicides;
  • imidazolinone herbicides;
  • phenoxyacid herbicides;
  • carbamate insecticides