Standard Article


  1. Shuo Wang1,
  2. Ivan R. Kennedy2,
  3. John H. Skerritt3

Published Online: 15 APR 2003

DOI: 10.1002/047126363X.agr138

Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals

Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals

How to Cite

Wang, S., Kennedy, I. R. and Skerritt, J. H. 2003. Immunoassays. Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

  2. 2

    University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

  3. 3

    Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2003


The development and application of specific immunoassays is reviewed, as a complementary method to instrumental methods such as gas–liquid chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. The simplicity of performing immunoassay methods, and their high detection sensitivity is traded off by the greater effort required for method development. In some (but not all) cases, immunoassay methods may be lower in precision than instrumental methods, but higher sample throughput may allow more analysis of a larger number of subsamples. The review describes the steps in the development of immunoassays for agrochemicals (including design and synthesis of haptens, conjugation to carrier proteins and enzymes, antibody production and immunoassay formats), application of immunoassays to a wide range of agrochemicals and immunoassay validation. The application of assays to food and environmental sample matrices and the need to overcome sample matrix interference is reviewed.


  • immunoassay;
  • ELISA;
  • hapten;
  • agrochemical;
  • pesticide;
  • herbicide;
  • insecticide;
  • fungicide;
  • food analysis;
  • environmental analysis;
  • analytical method