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  1. David J. Chitwood

Published Online: 15 APR 2003

DOI: 10.1002/047126363X.agr171

Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals

Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals

How to Cite

Chitwood, D. J. 2003. Nematicides. Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals. .

Author Information

  1. USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Maryland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2003


Few chemical nematicides remain registered for agronomic use because of the deregistration of many soil fumigants. The major chemical nematicides presently available include 1,3-dichloropropene, metam sodium, methyl bromide, aldicarb, oxamyl, ethoprop, and fenamiphos. Most of these face additional future restrictions. Various formulations and application techniques are utilized in order to maximize nematicidal efficacy and minimize atmospheric or groundwater contamination. Although resistance of plant-parasitic nematodes to chemical nematicides in agricultural fields is insignificant, in some cases, enhanced microbial degradation reduces nematicidal effectiveness. Two biopesticidal nematicides are registered in the United States: a chitinous material and a plant extract. Future control of phytoparasitic nematodes will involve increased use of nonchemical, sustainable, or site-specific management tactics. Fumigants receiving increased research attention as methyl bromide alternatives include the registered sodium tetrathiocarbonate and the unregistered methyl iodide and propargyl bromide. In addition, phytochemicals and other biorational chemicals are providing leads for discovering future nematicides. Future implementation of safe and effective chemical nematode management will be challenging.


  • application;
  • carbamate;
  • chemical control;
  • fumigant;
  • methyl bromide alternative;
  • nematicide;
  • nematode;
  • organophosphate;
  • review