The Michael Reaction
Published Online: 15 MAR 2011
Copyright © 2004 by Organic Reactions, Inc. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
How to Cite
Bergmann, E. D., Ginsburg, D. and Pappo, R. 2011. The Michael Reaction. Organic Reactions. 179–556.
- Published Online: 15 MAR 2011
The Michael condensation in its original scope is the addition of an addend or donor containing an alpha-hydrogen atom in the system OC CH to a carbon-carbon double bond that forms part of a conjugated system of the general formula CC CO in an acceptor. The condensation takes place under the influence of alkaline reagents, typically alkali metal alkoxides. The range of addends is very broad. Typical acceptors are alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes, keotnes, and acid derivatives. As an extension of the original scope, the Michael condensation has come to be understood to include addends and acceptors activated by groups other than carbonyl and carboxalkoxy. The wider scope is encompassed in this survey.
Keywords: Michael reaction; side reaction; adduct; bridged intermediates; cyclopropane derivatives; Michael condensation; ketones; esters; cycloalkanones; cycloalkenes; Robinson's modification; aromatic rings systems; rings; pyrroles; piperidines; pyrrolizidines; amino salts; experimental conditions