Pulmonary, Bone, Vitamins and Autocoid Therapeutic Agents
Published Online: 15 SEP 2010
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery
How to Cite
Block, J. H. 2010. Vitamins. Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery. 619–692.
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2010
Biochemical processes cannot operate without vitamins. Vitamins have a variety of functions and some have dual roles. Vitamin A (retinol), in its active form, is both a regulator of cell division and a structural component of the visual pigment, rhodopsin. Vitamin D (cholecalciferol), after a two-step hydroxylation in two different organs, is a hormonal regulator of calcium transport and cell division. Vitamin K is a coenzyme for carboxylation of glutamic acid. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a coenzyme for decarboxylation of α-keto acids and transketolase reactions in carbohydrate metabolism. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the active portion of the coenzymes FMN and FAD. Niacin/niacinamide are the active portions of the coenzymes NAD and NADP. The pyridoxine group (vitamin B6) is the coenzyme for amino acid metabolism including transaminations and decarboxylations. Pantothenic acid is a structural component of coenzyme A. Biotin is a coenzyme for four carboxylation reactions. Folic acid is a coenzyme for one-carbon metabolism. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin), with folic acid, is required for regeneration of methionine and, singly, is the coenzyme required for the rearrangement of methylmalonyl CoA. Ascorbic acid is a general free radical scavenger and required for at least eight biochemical reactions requiring oxidations. Vitamins A and D have provided the medicinal chemist with the basic structure to develop pharmacologically active molecules indicated for a variety of diseases. Some of the vitamins are toxic when taken in excess and have defined tolerable upper intake levels.
- coenzyme roles;
- commercial forms;
- hormonal roles;
- prototypical molecules