Published Online: 12 OCT 2012
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Characterization of Materials
How to Cite
Guertin, R. P. and Foner, S. 2012. Magnetometry. Characterization of Materials. 1–11.
- Published Online: 12 OCT 2012
All materials possess a magnetic moment; techniques for measuring that bulk macroscopic property are defined here as magnetometry. This article reviews the most common techniques for measuring the total magnetic moments of small samples (volume <= 1cm3 and/or mass <=1 g). Several factors contribute to the bulk magnetic moment of a sample. Essentially all materials show weak diamagnetism from filled electronic core states of the atoms. Metallic materials show an additional contribution to their diamagnetism from the orbital motion of the otherwise degenerate spin-up and spin-down conduction electrons as well as Pauli paramagnetism from splitting of the conduction bands. The largest contribution to the magnetic moment of materials comes from unpaired localized spins of elemental constituents unpaired 3d and sometimes 4d and 5d electrons in the case of the transition metal series, 4f electrons for the rare earths, and 5f electrons for the actinide constituents.
Keywords: magnetometry; flux magnetometers; force magnetometers; magnetic moment