Standard Article

X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis

X-Ray Techniques

  1. Gene E. Ice

Published Online: 12 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471266965.com076.pub2

Characterization of Materials

Characterization of Materials

How to Cite

Ice, G. E. 2012. X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis. Characterization of Materials. 1–19.

Author Information

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 OCT 2012


X-ray diffraction and x-ray-excited fluorescence analysis are powerful techniques for the nondestructive measurement of crystal structure and chemical composition. When a small-area x-ray microbeam is used as the probe, chemical composition, crystal structure, crystalline texture, and crystalline strain distributions can be determined. These distributions can be studied both at the surface of the sample and deep within the sample.

This article reviews the physics, advantages, and scientific applications of hard x-ray (E > 3 keV) microfluorescence and x-ray microdiffraction analysis. Because practical x-ray microbeam instruments are extremely rare, a special emphasis is placed on instrumentation, accessibility, and experimental needs which justify the use of x-ray microbeam analysis.


  • X-ray;
  • microprobe;
  • x-ray microdiffraction;
  • x-ray microfluorescence;
  • focusing optics;
  • Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors;
  • zone plates