Standard Article

X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

X-Ray Techniques

  1. Jonathan C. Lang

Published Online: 12 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471266965.com078.pub2

Characterization of Materials

Characterization of Materials

How to Cite

Lang, J. C. 2012. X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism. Characterization of Materials. 1–20.

Author Information

  1. Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 OCT 2012


This article presents the fundamentals of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. The types of information obtained from XMCD are discussed, including several examples of recent experimental work. The instrumentation required for these measurements, methods for sample preparation, data analysis, and common experimental problems is presented.


  • x-ray absorption spectroscopy;
  • synchrotron radiation;
  • magnetism