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Potentiostatic and Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Techniques

Electrochemical Techniques

  1. Mikhael D. Levi,
  2. Doron Aurbach

Published Online: 12 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/0471266965.com125

Characterization of Materials

Characterization of Materials

How to Cite

Levi, M. D. and Aurbach, D. 2012. Potentiostatic and Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Techniques. Characterization of Materials. 1–21.

Author Information

  1. Department of Chemistry, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 OCT 2012


This article is concentrated on the essentials of potential and current pulses techniques, commonly known as potentiostatic and galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques (PITT and GITT, respectively). They were introduced around 35 years ago to provide thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of two- and three-component metallic alloys with Li, and were thereafter widely used for studies of Li-ion insertion into a variety of intercalation-type anodes andcathodes. Emphasis is given to description of ion diffusion in finite (confined) space versus semi-infinite diffusion in classical electrochemical cells. Special attention is also paid to intrinsic link between the diffusion time constant obtained from different electroanalytical techniques used and its dependence on the shape of the related ion intercalation isotherm. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages in using separate incremental titration techniques as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for detecting diffusion coefficients.


  • titration techniques;
  • potentiostatic intermittent titration techniques;
  • galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques;
  • diffusion coefficients;
  • electrochemical titration